Major And Minor Plates

1-  Antarctica and the surrounding
     oceanic plate
2-  North American (with western Atlantic
     floor separated from the South American
     plate along the Caribbean islands) plate
3- South American (with western Atlantic
    floor separated from the North American
    plate along the Caribbean islands) plate
4- Pacific plate
5- India-Australia-New Zealand plate
6- Africa with the eastern Atlantic floor plate
7- Eurasia and the adjacent oceanic plate.

Some important minor plates are listed below: (i)- Cocos plate : Between Central America
        and Pacific plate
(ii)- Nazca plate : Between South America
         and Pacific plate
(iii)- Arabian plate : Mostly the Saudi Arabian
(iv)- Philippine plate : Between the Asiatic and
        Pacific plate
(v)- Caroline plate : Between the Philippine
       and Indian plate (North of New Guinea)
(vi)- Fuji plate : North-east of Australia.
        These plates have been constantly moving
        over the globe through…

Folk Paintings Of India

India is a diverse country with multi facet cultures, languages, arts and religions, all these features leaded to a composite culture and invaluable arts and crafts, in south India, miniature paintings, folk paintings.
lets have quick glance on Indian Folk Paintings-

1-  Madhubani:- 
     Also known as Mithla Painting, is a folk painting on Bihar and adjoining Nepal.
     It is Given GI tag also.
     Mostly Regional Motifs are drawn in it, with 2-D features and Double Lines on Border.
     Painted with Hands, Sticks etc.
     Jagdamba Devi was awarded in it art.

2- Pattchitar:- 
    A Oriya painting style, used in depiction of lord Shiva and pencil is not used, only brush are used.
    if drawn on palm leaf, its called "TalaPatcharita".

3- Patua :- 
Folk Painting of Bengal region.
    Vaishanav Theme, some time Shiv and Shakti are depicted.
     Religious theme, while sometime Political and even social also.
     painted on clothes and paper.

4- Kalighat:- 
Folk painting of …

Seoul Peace Award

Prime minister of India Narender Modi awarded Seoul Peace award 2018.

About Seoul Award:- 
its a biennial award ( given in 2 years) , by South Korea.
Seoul is the capital pf south Korea in Korean peninsula.
Was established in 1990 to commemorate 1988 Summer Olympics games, south Korea.
it reflects, Korean people aspiration, wish and ardent desire for world peace, specially when South Korea and North Korea both remains highly volatile.

Procedure of selecting:-
300 Korean Nationals
800 experts from world, select a awardee.

Why MODI? 14th recipient.
For "ACT EAST" policy.
For "MODI DOCTRINE' of foreign policy.
For "ModiNomics" 
all of the above helped Modi to alleviate many poor out of poverty, and for reducing inequality.

Earlier awrdee:- 
1)- Md. Yonous in 2006 from Bangladesh (Grameen Bank).
2)- Abdul sattar edhi in 2008 from Pakistan. 
3)- Ban ki Moon in 2012 (UN Chief).
4)- Angela markel of Germany too.

Island Development Agency

IDA was constituted in 2017 for holistic development of Indian islands, by ensuring no disturbance to Bio diversity and Ecological balance in islands.
as these islands are strategically vital for Indian security and defense, can be assist Indian hegemony on Indian ocean.
India has 615 islands/islets. Majority of them, around 572 islands/islets are located in the Bay of Bengal and remaining 43 islands/islets are located in the Arabian Sea. Apart from these, there are some coral islands in the Gulf of Mannar and Khambat regions and there are some offshore islands along the mouth of Ganga river.

and provide great potential to tourism industry.
IDA is chaired by Home Minister  of India.
Members are-
Cabinet secretary
Home secretary
Environment secretary
tourism secretary
tribal affair secretary
till now under it 10 island are recognized
5 in Andman and Nicobar
5 in Lakshdeep

Jammu - Sialkot Rail line

Part of Wazirabad-sialkot- Jammu Route , it was broad gauge line, which was opened in 1890.
this rail line was a rail link between princely state of kashmir with british punjab, till 1947.
after tragic partition, the line was never used.
before it, it was 2 hours ride from Jammu to Sialkot.
People traveled through this rail in large number and goods were imported from here, it was a crucial link for jammu kashir princely state economy.
according to many historians link was used to carry sugar canes to british punjab to its mills.
there were two services of trains
1- Wazirabad-sailkot- jammu Rail. 87 km
2- Sialkot-jammu Rail. 45km

HPS, NRM WP 7200, B-26 Engines were used. 

old photo of train 

OLD R S Pora station 
OLD station Ja,mmu 
Sialkot Junction  

Prarthna Samaj

This was founded in Bombay by Atma Ram Pandurang in year 1867.
under the guidence of Keshab Chandar Sen.
R G Bhandarkar was its active member.
In year 1870, justice Govind Ranade joined this group, he was very active and that phase became very active in the whole history of Pararthna Samaj, he started "Purity Movement" to reform Indian marriages, which were often lavish and costly, in all this he was helped by Dhondu Karve and Vishnu Shastri.
He wrote "a theist confession of faith"
worked for women empowerment and for widow remarriage .
 They even started widow home association.
In south the movement was carried by Veersalingam and this movement was very profound in th
e Maharashtra and adjoining areas.
Parmahans mandali 
                              Founded in1849 in maharashta, where food was prepared by law caste.
Manav dharm mandali 

National Medical Commission Bill, 2017.

National Medical Commission Bill, 2017.
This bill was presented by the union health minister J P Nadda in parliament, which leaded to widespread protest by doctors in throughout India.
Bill tends to modify the old, Indian medical council act 1956. This is now obsolete and leaded to corruption in health isitute.
~Current situation
1- Lack of ethics in health sector in India, declining respect and ethos for customer and duty toward them, due rise of commercial interests.
2- Rampant corruption in medical colleges and intuition, for treatment ad seats, its now very costly for a poor an to afford study in the field of the medical.
~ Making of bill
Earlier, a committee headed by Ranjit Roy choudhary was given task to study the old council act, and recommend changes, if needed and the committee gave bunch of recommendations.
Than, the bill was made by drafting committee, which had four members and headed by the vice chairman of the NITI Ayog and the bill was presented in loksabha.
Feature :- 
The aim…

Dogra Sadar Sabha

Dogra Sadar Sabha ( डोगरा सदर सभा )  Dogra SadarSabha was first secular and people oriented association formed in the state of Jammu and Kashmir which was under the Dogra rulers of the jammu. It was formed in 1904 in Jammu.
Dogra word is used to denote the race or ethnic group of jammuplains and lesser hill who speak Dogri and some timePahadi, they inhabitant in jammu Himachal and in Pakistan Punjab north east.
But in this Dogra SadraSabha opposite to its name, it was comprised of may ethnic community and linguistic groups who lived under the dogra rulers in jammu Kashmir nation or kingdom.  It had Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs.
The members were neo educated and inspired by the principles of democracy and secularism. Secularism was andominant feature of the association which is very vital in its functioning.
It was socio economic in nature and very limited in political sphere initially and in later stages it became more and more engaged in the political sphere. Its main plank was so…

Drainage system of Jammu and Kashmir : explained

Drainage system of Jammu Kashmir
In Jammu and Kashmir, there is abundance of rivers and many rivulets, some are perennial while some are not. Due mountain and snowfall, here in jammu Kashmir, there are many rivers, which are fed by rain in summer and than by accumulated snows of high reaches. Just like Tawi, which have origin in Kailash Kund in upper ranges and the Jhelum which originated from the Panjal ranges or precisely the Verinag or Veth Vatru. These all rivers travel from east toward the south west and most of them end up in Pakistan and later reaches their main river or sea.
What is drainage system?
Drainage system in geomorphology simply means the river system.
There are many pattern are formed by the rivers, rivulets and lakes, which are effected by the soft or hard rocks, which actually determine the course of the river.
Drainage roughly means, under it the water is carried by the river or the rivulets toward the sea or some lake and in some case to the ponds.
-Some forms …

Iron & Steel Industry and it's distribution in World

World distribution of iron and steel industries
Iron and steel industry I regarded as the basis of the industries and mark of human development it is an basic need for the industries. For agriculture or textile industry all machinery and implement are made of iron or steel.  Every developing nation must have iron and steel industry to support its developmental programs. In past England, USA, and now china are progressing , their  development is fuelled by iron and steel industry.  Currently the main producer of iron and steel in the world are chin , Europe, Japan, Germany, India, Russia, USA, and many other nations.
The basic requirement for iron and steel industries are
1- Iron ore and other minerals
2- Coal
3 -Water
4 -Capital
5 -Transport and communication
6 -market
7- Labor
8- Port facilities
Before 1970s, most of the steel and iron was produced in USA and Western Europe but now Asia is the power house, especially the Asian tigers (china, Japan, Taiwan, and South Kore…